Why Ibrahim Halawa Deserves a Fair Trial

By Patrick Brogan

 

“But Egypt has always faced challenges from outside –– magicians from elsewhere, even gods from elsewhere. Just be vigilant.”

  • Rick Riordan, The Serpent’s Shadow

 

I don’t know who Rick Riordan is either, but this quote sums up Egyptian history over the last few thousand years. Egyptians went thousands of years without having their destiny in their own hands. All the big players came through in that time. The Persians, the Assyrians, Alexander the Great, the Romans, Napoleon, the Ottomans, the British and a few more besides.  Even when we look back to the last of the classical Egyptian rulers, Cleopatra,  we see she was part of the Ptolemy dynasty which had its roots back with Alexander the Great and was therefore of Macedon-Greek origin.

 

Modern Egypt

 

We could then forgive the natives for being a bit paranoid during this time. Then the first Egyptian proper took over in the 50’s. President Nasser is generally regarded as a stabilising influence on his country’s history. He brought in wide sweeping economic reform. He also clamped down the country’s internal ‘enemies’.

 

These two things have marked much of Egypt’s recent history and are entwined; the fear of outsiders and a need to stomp out any subversive activity within the country. This is understandable when we look at the region. Bush and Blair’s oil war is not too far to the east, they have gone to war with a hostile northern neighbour in Israel, to the west Libya collapsed bringing further turmoil to the region and Sudan just had an all out civil war to the south. Throw in the ever-present threat of ISIS and it may give you some idea of the daily fear.

 

However, while it is understandable why the Egyptian authorities would be on guard against such threats, oppressing the people is not the best way of protecting national interests. In fact, it is this paranoia that ensured many leaders’ own collapse. Hosni Mubarak ruled from 1981 until the population got tired of being oppressed and forced him to resign in 2011, part of the so-called Arab Spring. Then Mohamed Morsi came to power and lost it in much the same way Mubarak did. Now we have Abdel Fattah al-Sisi in his stead. During this period, the police state policies remained.

 

A Young Dublin Family

 

It is the period of Morsi going and al-Sisi taking the reigns that a young Irish family becomes thrown into the mix. The Halawas are from South Dublin, but both parents were born in Egypt. Needless to say, the family has an affinity with that country. In the summer of 2013, Somaia, Fatima, Omaima and Ibrahim Halawa all took part in a rally in Cairo. This rally was organised by Egyptians Abroad for Democracy. According to their Facebook page; “Egyptians Abroad For Democracy is a Non-Profit Organisation that started as an International movement created in Rabaa sit-in following the military coup in Egypt. Our mission is to raise international awareness about human rights violations and anti-democratic actions which are currently taking place in Egypt.” After being held up in a Mosque, the Halawas were arrested.

 

Ibrahim is still in prison and has not faced trial, which was cancelled for the 14th time recently. Amnesty International have repeatedly called for his release and say it runs contrary to basic his human rights, any logical person can see being imprisoned without trial is unfair. What exactly is he guilty of anyway?

 

Prisoner of Conscience

 

He is a prisoner of conscience, regardless of how you spin it, that much is true. There are a number of people in this country who believe that he is so much more. The theory goes like this; Ibrahim Halawa’s father, Hussein, is a leading member of the Muslim Brotherhood in Ireland. He is the Imam of the mosque in Clonskeagh and linked to an organisation that is trying to bring Sharia law into Europe. His children went to Cairo to protest against the toppling of a Muslim Brotherhood president in Mohamed Morsi. Ibrahim and his family are totally submerged in Muslim Brotherhood dogma and they’re trying to force this ideology on the rest of the citizens of the country.

 

Before we get into answering if any of this is true or not we must discuss the Muslim Brotherhood. To give you an idea on their outlook on life ISIS have their genesis in this organisation. Many of the early members, the ones that came up with the path ISIS should follow, began with the Muslim Brotherhood.  Many of its members believe in a jihad to bring in a global caliphate. So to say they are not pro-democracy is an understatement. To be fair, the Muslim Brotherhood started out with charity and education in mind and that is something they have fulfilled in many poor and disadvantaged parts of Cairo and beyond.

 

Are There Links to the Muslim Brotherhood?

 

Mark Humphrys’ website is the one that offers the most complete theory about Hussein’s and Ibrahim’s guilt. The problem? It is all hearsay. On social media, he makes the claim that Hussein Halawa is for light wife beating and the killing of gays. He doesn’t offer the evidence of when and where he said this. I think he might be putting the words of another cleric in his mouth. This other cleric is Yusuf al-Qaradawi. He did say this and it is important to remember he is linked to Clonskeagh Mosque, as are the Halawas.

 

The US is constantly looking into the spread of radical Islam.  When Wikileaks released the cables of US diplomats it turned out the US government asked its embassy here to investigate radical Islam in Dublin. It turns out they looked into Hussein Halawa and Yusuf al-Qaradawi and the Ambassador at the time, James Kenny said of the father Halawa; “It is doubtful that he, [another senior ICCI official Ali] Saleem, or others suspected of MB [Muslim Brotherhood] involvement operate independently of some informal conservative Islamic or MB hierarchy.”

 

The problem I have with this is it is based on hearsay from another cleric and journalists. I think it’s fair to say that clerics and journalists are not always right. Outside of this, there is no further evidence. So, what I take from this is Hussein Halawa is closely associated with a man with barbaric views, but whether they are members of the MB or even sympathisers is very unclear. Here is the article so you can make your own mind up about it. 

 

Back to Mark Humphry’s site. There are a number of points he brings up that don’t offer any clear evidence of Ibrahim being an MB sympathiser. One of them is a picture of a gender segregated rally calling for the release of Ibrahim. I’m not sure what this has to do with Ibrahim’s case. Another is the likes section allegedly taken from the Halawas individual Facebook profiles. In it, there is a lot of anti-Israel and pro-Palestine pages. Even if they are taken from the genuine Halawa Facebook profiles it does not prove they are members of any organisation. I know of a number of people that are very critical of Israel’s actions in the West Bank and Gaza and none of these are members of the Muslim Brotherhood. The UN and Noam Chomsky for example. 

 

Then there are the videos transcripts on the site. Under one of the videos Humphrys writes of Halawa; “He says “the Army and the cops” (or is it “the Copts”?) are “working together” to kill the Muslim Brotherhood.” At no point in this, or any of the other videos does Ibrahim mention the Muslim Brotherhood. In the video, he says he wants freedom for the people of Egypt. These videos, and a video online of the rally, only point to Ibrahim being a pro-democratic activist rather than him being a Muslim Brotherhood black ops agent.

 

Then there are the pictures on the website. One is a picture of Ibrahim’s emergency passport. The theory is that Ibrahim burnt his original passport, why he would do this is never explained. Mark Humphrys uses a picture of his emergency passport to suggest he did actually burn it. He never mentions that it was possible the authorities took it, that way there is no evidence he is under the age of 18 and can be tried as an adult, or simply, that given everything that happened, he simply lost it or knew where it was and couldn’t retrieve it, you know, because he was in prison. 

 

Then there is a picture of his sister campaigning for his release with a picture of Morsi in the background. Mark Humphrys looks at this and thinks it is evidence of Halawa links to the Muslim Brotherhood. As already stated, Morsi was a Muslim Brotherhood member, but he was also democratically elected by the Egyptian people and as we know, it was democracy and freedom that Ibrahim was searching for. Even if neither of those are a cornerstone of which the MB was built on. Then there is a link to a picture of the jihadi flag upon the stage that Halawa addressed the rally. The flag is there, but no Ibrahim. This could be a picture taken from anywhere at anytime.

 

Another thing I found interesting about Mark Humphrys is his twitter account. He clearly was for the Leave side during the British referendum on the EU. A number of his retweets are from those pointing out that the majority of English people, although not Northern Irish nor Scottish, voted in favour of leaving the EU and whether you like it or not that’s how democracy works. When Ibrahim Halawa points this out he is an Islamic extremist. In the interest of balance here is the site.

 

Al-Sisi

 

This case is more complicated than it is depicted. Al-Sisi was appointed Minister of Defense by Morsi, and this is taken from German newspaper Spiegel; “The appointment triggered speculation over Sisi’s sympathies. At the time, many implied that the devout military man was secretly a member of the Muslim Brotherhood. As evidence, they pointed to Sisi’s wife, who wore a face veil that covered everything but the eyes. At the time, no one would have thought it possible that Sisi would depose Morsi less than a year later.”

 

Al-Sisi wasn’t a figure that came out of the cold to remove a tyrant. He was already a member of the establishment and sought to get rid of a democratically elected leader. He was also a member of Mubarak’s security intelligence before he was toppled too. We all know how that ended. The Egyptian Frank Underwood.  In the interim, al-Sisi has also been elected president in what was an election for show rather than a serious political debate about the country’s future. It’s not like things have improved under his leadership. Egypt is bad as it has ever been in terms of living standards and rights. This is taken from the website of an agency called Middle East Monitoring, the piece is commentating on Human Rights abuse since al-Sisi took over; “Dr Maha Azzam was the first panellist to speak and she expressed the urgency of the humanitarian need in the country. She gave a detailed description of the way that her country is slowly turning into a dystopia before the eyes of the world, and the international community’s complicity in its attitude towards the coup and the atrocities that have followed. Azzam spoke about the British government in particular and reiterated that it has a responsibility to use its diplomatic and economic power to put pressure on Cairo and restore democratic legitimacy in Egypt.”

Then we have somebody commentating on the coup itself; “The legality of the issue was then addressed, with human rights lawyer Tayab Ali explaining the legal technicalities of the coup and how it breached international humanitarian law by abusing freedom of speech and the fundamental right of people to live in security and be protected by their government. He then elaborated on Dr Azzam’s critique of the British government.”

 

This next part is important in regards to how Ibrahim Halawa is treated; “The topic of human rights abuses was expanded by Abdullah El-Haddad, who gave his personal insight into the abuse of prisoners in Egypt. Both his father and his brother have been imprisoned by the Egyptian government headed by President Abdel Fattah Al-Sisi. Haddad described the inhumane conditions under which prisoners in Egypt are forced to live, which include physical and psychological torture, the blocking of family visitation rights and the denial of adequate medical treatment. He also addressed the treatment of prisoners’ families, explaining how the authorities make it exceptionally difficult for families to conduct such visits even when they are permitted. They are usually forced to wait up to 13 hours, camping outside the prison, for visits which rarely last longer than 10 minutes.”

 

And so it goes on. The prisoners are exposed to diseases that will likely eventually kill them. There is a media crackdown. Children are sentenced to death. If only the people would go out and protest against this injustice… oh, wait.

 

The Complicit West

 

It is interesting to see the British being criticised for not doing enough. Think back to all the bullshit we were subjected to during the build up to the invasions of Afghanistan and Iraq and how they were going to spread democracy. It’s less than 1,000 km between the borders of Egypt and Iraq. Iraq shares a border with Libya. The Western powers could intervene in both of these countries, but wouldn’t when a democratically elected president was overthrown by his army. The reason for all this happening is because the Americans and British only ever act out of their interests, always associated with finance, and never act out of altruism.

 

In the meantime, a young Irish man is left to rot while the “strong men” carve up the world. Did Ibrahim Halawa go over to promote the Muslim Brotherhood? The evidence would suggest not, in the videos he is asking for democracy and freedom. Is his father a member of the Muslim Brotherhood? There is no hard evidence of this. His father is almost certainly acquainted with a misogynist homophobe. There is no evidence to suggest the son holds these same views. Think of it this way; if there was any hard evidence it would have been used against him by now. Why were his sisters released and allowed travel home? Even if the things people say about him are true, he is still entitled to a fair trial. Will he get one? Hopefully, because who knows much more he can take.

 

If you want to read on further about the Human Rights abuses since al-Sisi took power you can click on this link.

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Mark Humphrys’ Response

In relation to this article, Mark Humphrys responded by saying that it was “full of problems.” I will give his list of problems first as they appear on his site and then I will give my responses below.

Patrick Brogan, 11 July 2016, writes a different piece to the norm on Halawa. See tweet. He deserves credit for reading my site.

His dismissal of the mountain of evidence for Halawa extremism on my site is ludicrous, but at least he looked at it, which is more than can be said for most Halawa supporters. So credit for reading this site. But the article is full of problems:

  1. He misquotes me. He says about me: “On social media, he makes the claim that Hussein Halawa is for light wife beating and the killing of gays. He doesn’t offer the evidence of when and where he said this. I think he might be putting the words of another cleric in his mouth. This other cleric is Yusuf al-Qaradawi.”
  2. This is wrong. I never said Halawa supported wife-beating. If Brogan linked all his claims to a source he would see that. I said Qaradawi supports wife-beating.
  3. Also, I certainly do show where Halawa is quoted as calling for death for gays. Of course Qaradawi is quoted as calling for death for gays too.
  4. He says: “Mark Humphreys [sic] uses a picture of his emergency passport to suggest he did actually burn it.” Not exactly. I never believed that story, because there was no evidence. But the new passport is odd, and makes me wonder could the story be true after all. I am agnostic until more evidence emerges.
  5. He does not deal with the massive mountain of evidence of Halawa MB links through the ECFR and other MB organisations. He does not read the detailed report: The Muslim Brotherhood in Ireland by Steven Merley. What is the ECFR in Brogan’s universe?
  6. “Egyptians Abroad for Democracy” is not a pro-democracy group. It is a MB group. The MB in fact despises democracy.
  7. He says: “as we know, it was democracy and freedom that Ibrahim was searching for.” Ludicrous. Halawa was fighting to oppress Egyptians under sharia law.
  8. He says: “there is a link to a picture of the jihadi flag upon the stage that Halawa addressed the rally. The flag is there, but no Ibrahim. This could be a picture taken from anywhere at anytime.” Not any time. It is from the MB protests of July-Aug 2013, that Halawa spoke at. And not anywhere. It is the same stage. And look who is on stage: Salah Soltan, who Halawa quoted in his speech as his leader at this time. Would Brogan like to address the fact that Ibrahim cited two anti-semites in his 3 minute speech?

So I don’t think much of his apologetics. But still, fair play for reading the enemy. He is far more intellectually curious than Donal O’Keeffe.

There is a lot in here, so I’ll go through it by point by point. Firstly, this in on The Irish Left Supports the Halawas section of Mark’s website. I am not a member of the Irish left. Even if I was, the point of doing this article was to look at the evidence, so regardless of any reader’s political viewpoint, or my own, the facts would still stand up. Secondly, Mr Humphrys refers to my research on his site as “reading the enemy.” I believe this is tongue-in-cheek, but if there is any confusion I would like to state that I have respect for any person that is vigilant about the spread of radical Islam, or any form of extremism. The events in Europe in recent weeks should illustrate why that is. Therefore, I don’t see anybody as an enemy, particularly not Mark Humphrys.   

I don’t see Ibrahim Halawa as somebody spreading radical Islam. The evidence, rather than mere hearsay, leads me to this conclusion. I hope that as I go through these points, that this will become clear to anybody reading them. I ‘ll take the first two points together as they lead into each other. 

  1. He misquotes me. He says about me: “On social media, he makes the claim that Hussein Halawa is for light wife beating and the killing of gays. He doesn’t offer the evidence of when and where he said this. I think he might be putting the words of another cleric in his mouth. This other cleric is Yusuf al-Qaradawi.”
  2. This is wrong. I never said Halawa supported wife-beating. If Brogan linked all his claims to a source he would see that. I said Qaradawi supports wife-beating.

This refers to a comment Mark made on social media about Hussein Halawa. On his site, it certainly does say that Qarawadi is for “light wife beating”and this is a point I made too. 

         3. Also, I certainly do show where Halawa is quoted as calling for death for gays. Of course Qaradawi is quoted as calling for death for gays too.

I would like to know where this quote is from; “He[Hussein Halawa] believes that homosexuality should be divided into three categories: those who are born so, those who have chosen it, and those who try to convert others to be gays. [He said that] for those who want to push others to be gays, Sharia [requires] the death penalty.” If he said this I would strongly condemn these comments, but I cannot find the original source of the quote. I would also like to condemn what Sara Azmeh Rasmussen had to endure. 

            4.He says: “Mark Humphreys [sic] uses a picture of his emergency passport to suggest he did actually burn it.” Not exactly. I never believed that story, because there was no evidence. But the new passport is odd, and makes me wonder could the story be true after all. I am agnostic until more evidence emerges.

The correct spelling was been put in place, my apologies for that. I would say that it is implied that he did burn the passport. Would this be fair? Comments like; “However, the following makes me wonder if the story is true after all” and  “Did Halawa tear up his Irish passport on video?
A. I have seen no evidence of that myself. But it may be true.” I think any objective person would say that Ibrahim Halawa burning his passport is implied by these comments. Why would he burn his passport? I think in all the chaos that ensued, there are a number of legitimate reasons why his passport went missing other than burning it. 
This does follow the rather odd pattern of “Islamic extremists” and their passports. 9/11 and the Paris attacks being examples.

               5.He does not deal with the massive mountain of evidence of Halawa MB links through the ECFR and other MB organisations. He does not read the detailed report: The Muslim Brotherhood in Ireland by Steven Merley. What is the ECFR in Brogan’s universe?

This isn’t strictly true. I did cite that Journal.ie article and how the US ambassador at the time believed that the ICCI was heavily influenced by the Muslim Brotherhood. Again, I would like to have more hard evidence than the hearsay of another Imam and some journalists. I find this is a credible enough source. I may be mistaken, but I don’t think this link is on markhumphrys.com.

I have not read all of Steven Merley’s report, but I would be very sceptical of anybody that produces a report on behalf of Jerusalem Centre of Public Affairs. I wouldn’t instinctively trust anyone that makes reports for the Israeli or any other government, especially their PR arms. I know of no government that isn’t guilty of bending the truth or just outright lies. I did, however, find this segment baffling;  “Unlike most other European countries, the Irish government appears to have developed a close relationship with these Brotherhood organizations. For example, in September 2007 Minister of State for Integration Conor Lenihan spoke at a Ramadan ceremony at the ICCI mosque where his remarks were described as follows:
“ Noting that Muslims were among the oldest of our
newer immigrant groups, in that members of the
community had been here for “20/30” years, he said
such longevity had allowed for the development of
“a very special relationship” between them and Irish
society but also, through them, between Ireland and
the wider and very diverse Muslim world.”

Many of the Irish Muslim Brotherhood leaders described below were in the audience.”

Is Steven Merley suggesting that the Irish Government of the time was there to appease and cosy up to Muslim Brotherhood members? Lenihan’s speech is clearly directed at the entire Muslim community in Ireland. I feel there is an underlining theme of guilt by association in some of these articles. Maybe there are members of the Muslim Brotherhood that attend the Clonskeagh mosque, but does mean that it is run by the MB? No. More evidence than their mere presence is required to make that clear. The same applies to ECFR.

              6.”Egyptians Abroad for Democracy” is not a pro-democracy group. It is a MB group. The MB in fact despises democracy.

The link on the Humphrys site in relation to Egyptians Abroad for Democracy states; “These activists represent the core of an international movement to support the democratic path in Egypt, and to reject the military coup” and “The main goal is to show refusal of the military coup, uncover plots to annul popular will, and support constitutional and legal legitimacy in Egypt.” Nothing is mentioned about it being an MB group. 

                 7. He says: “as we know, it was democracy and freedom that Ibrahim was searching for.” Ludicrous. Halawa was fighting to oppress Egyptians under sharia law.

This is far from ludicrous. This is something that can be backed up by one of the few pieces of hard evidence on the Mark Humphrys site. I’m referring to a video clip of Ibrahim Halawa in the mosque just before he was captured. He says “I want what is happening back in Ireland to happen here.” Ireland is not a country ruled by the Muslim Brotherhood so one can only assume that he is referring to democracy and civil rights. He also complains about the lack of freedom in Egypt and that dogs back home have more freedom. Not once does he mention the Muslim Brotherhood. For a man who must have suspected he was about to die it would be unusual to be politically savvy and choose his words that carefully. In fact, people that knew him before hand describe him as not being very politically minded.  Before anyone says if he wasn’t political what was he doing in Egypt I would say you don’t need to be Gore Vidal to respect the principals of freedom. 

Given the weight of evidence towards Ibrahim supporting democracy and the lack of it towards him being a member of the Muslim Brotherhood it is actually ludicrous to suggest he was trying to bring in Sharia law in Egypt. 

      8. He says: “there is a link to a picture of the jihadi flag upon the stage that Halawa addressed the rally. The flag is there, but no Ibrahim. This could be a picture taken from anywhere at anytime.” Not any time. It is from the MB protests of July-Aug 2013, that Halawa spoke at. And not anywhere. It is the same stage. And look who is on stage: Salah Soltan, who Halawa quoted in his speech as his leader at this time. Would Brogan like to address the fact that Ibrahim cited two anti-semites in his 3 minute speech?

The same stage, but not at the same time. At the time of Ibrahim’s speech, a sign saying democracy is very prominent behind him. An Egyptians Abroad for Democracy sign to be more exact. When on stage Ibrahim is very clear what he is there for. “What do we want?” To which the crowd replies; “Freedom!” Again, the Muslim Brotherhood is not mentioned in his speech. I don’t see where he refers to Salah Soltan as his leader. “Also, during the massacre at Sadat’s Memorial I was there and saw the people killed even though Salah Sultan said to come back, but they stayed to face the police and our standing there stopped the police and the thugs.” Also. I don’t see anything anti-semitic in his speech. 

So I don’t think much of his apologetics. But still, fair play for reading the enemy. He is far more intellectually curious than Donal O’Keeffe.

I would object to the use of “apologetics”. That would suggest that Ibrahim Halawa has done something wrong, ie trying to force Sharia law on the citizens of Egypt and that this is something I support. I have seen nothing in Humphrys’ response that would make me change my mind on Halawa’s position and I certainly don’t support Sharia law. Thanks to Mark for the compliment, I know how you hold Donal O’ Keeffe in high regard. (Now that was tongue-in-cheek.)

I think overall this is a good example of trial by the internet. There is very little in the way of hard evidence to suggest Ibrahim Halawa did anything other than seeking democracy and freedom for the people of Egypt, a people he has deep emotional ties to given his family background. A lot of the points brought up are linked back to Hussein Halawa. My father made a crazy decision to follow Aston Villa a few years back. It didn’t mean I went out and bought a Villa jersey. This may be a tad facetious, but the point is even if Hussein Halawa is “MB royalty” as he was once described–and that is a big if in my view– there is virtually nothing to say that Ibrahim is part of the same ideology.

In a way, this reminds me of the Salem witch trials. Somebody is judged on repetition of speculation. Then this speculation is spread far and wide until it is accepted as fact. The echo chamber as it is known. Many of the quotes I have seen on markhumphrys.com are on social media and various forums. Many people repeat the claims without verifying if they are true or not because it fits in with an ideological point of view they have.  

Some of what’s on the site is rather odd. For example, in responding to the passport story Mark Humphrys responded by saying  “there was no evidence” although the fact there was a new passport did make him “wonder could the story be true after all”. Well, if there is no evidence why would a person wonder? Why even mention on the site? As I said earlier, the wording is framed in a way that implies he was up to no good. Along with the rest of the site. A lot of dots that are loosely related are joined to make it look like he is a jihadi enforcing Sharia law. 

Let’s look further at framing. Could we suggest he was an animal rights activist? It sounds absurd initially but we can take what he said and make it look that way. “Back home, the dogs have more freedom.” See? He is campaigning for animal rights in Egypt. At the end of that clip, it sounds like he is saying a lady with a dog. Then on stage, he repeats what do we want to the crowd. In response, they say freedom. Clearly, this meant freedom for dogs. So, I think this illustrates how a narrative can be bent to fit in with a notion somebody already has. 

Evidence and the lack thereof are much harder to ignore, though. Would it not be easier for the Egyptian authorities to present the evidence and then lock him away legitimately? Of course it would, but the hitch is that this evidence isn’t there. How anyone can say he is guilty of this or that without evidence scares me. What type of society are we heading for if this is the case? We went through a period of enlightenment whereby statements generally were backed up by scientific fact or evidence before they were proved. Now, for whatever reason, people have given up on this. 

Laws generally are based on fairness. Innocent until proven guilty. Is this no longer the case in this country? If so, I can understand why so many are willing to leave. For so long it was the Irish that were accused of terrorism and negative stereotypes were cast upon anybody from this island even if they had nothing to do with politics. We are one of those countries that should be more wary than most of accusations that fit in with a particular ideology. And it is ideology that keeps coming up again and again and the world gradually becomes a less nice place to live. Forget ideology, as Halawa said; “Where is the humanity?”

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